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 Vol. 4, No. 4 

April, 2002

Since You Asked

~ Page 18 ~

Fountain Pen Mind and Heart

By Louis Rushmore

I would appreciate very much if you would explain ... on the Mind and Heart. I have always thought they were the same, but in the last year, the subject has come in 3 different classes and only one out of the three teachers have said it was the same. ~ Lottie Pickett, Franklin, NC

Matthew 22:37 illustrates that sometimes the words "mind" and "heart" are not precisely the same: "Jesus said unto him, Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind"; see also Hebrews 10:16. In addition, several Hebrew and Greek words are translated "mind" and have various meanings. Consider some of the New Testament appearances of the English word "mind."

The Greek word, dianoia, refers to the thinking part of man or the exercise of his intellect (Matthew 22:37; Mark 12:30; Luke 10:27; Ephesians 2:3; Colossians 1:21; Hebrews 8:10; 10:16; 1 Peter 1:13; 2 Peter 3:1). Consequently, dianoia is also translated as "in the imagination" (Luke 1:51) and "understanding" (Ephesians 1:18; 4:18; 1 John 5:20).

The Greek word, sophroneo, means to be in one's right mind, as in sane or sober ("right mind" Mark 5:15; Luke 8:35; "soberly" Romans 12:3; "be sober" 2 Corinthians 5:13; 1 Peter 4:7; "be sober minded" Titus 2:6). The Greek word, dialogizomai, means to consider, reason or think ("cast in her mind" Luke 1:29; "reason," "reasoning" or "reasoned" Matthew 16:7-8; 21:25; Mark 2:6, 8, 16-17; Luke 5:21-22; Luke 20:14; "disputed" Mark 9:33; "mused" Luke 3:15; "thought" Luke 12:17; "consider" John 11:50). The Greek word, meteorizo, means to be of a "doubtful mind" (Luke 12:29).

The Greek word, meteorizo, means a willing mind ("readiness of mind" Acts 17:11; "a readiness" 2 Corinthians 8:11; 2 Corinthians 10:6; "a willing mind" 2 Corinthians 8:12; "ready mind" 2 Corinthians 8:19; "forwardness of mind" 2 Corinthians 9:2). The Greek word, tapeinophrosune, means humility ("humility of mind" Acts 20:19; "lowliness" Ephesians 4:2; "in lowliness of mind" Philippians 2:3; "humility" Colossians 2:18, 23; 1 Peter 5:5; "humbleness of mind" Colossians 3:12). The Greek word, nous, means intellect ("mind" Romans 1:28; 7:23, 25; 11:34; 12:2; 14:5; 1 Corinthians 1:10; 2:16; Ephesians 4:17, 23; Colossians 2:18; 2 Thessalonians 2:2; 1 Timothy 6:5; 2 Timothy 3:8; Titus 1:15; Revelation 17:9; "understanding" Luke 24:45; 1 Corinthians 14:14-15, 19; Philippians 4:7; Revelation 13:18).

The Greek word, phronema, means inclination ("mind" or "minded" Romans 8:6-7, 27). The Greek word, homothumadon, means unanimously ("one mind" Romans 15:6; "with one accord" Acts 1:14; 2:26; 4:24; 5:12; 7:57; 8:6; 12:20; 15:25; 18:12; 19:29). The Greek word, epanamimnesko, means to remind of something ("mind" Romans 15:15). The Greek word, zelos, means zeal ("fervent mind" 2 Corinthians 7:7; "zeal" John 2:17; Romans 10:2; 2 Corinthians 7:11; 9:2; Philippians 3:6; "indignation" Acts 5:17; "envy" or "envying" Acts 13:45; Romans 13:13; 1 Corinthians 3:3; 2 Corinthians 12:20; James 3:14, 16; "jealousy" 2 Corinthians 11:2; "emulations" Galatians 5:20).

The Greek word, psuche, means heart, life, mind or soul, depending on the context in which it is used; this Greek word is used 106 times in the New Testament and is translated as "life," "soul," "minds" (Acts 14:2; Hebrews 12:13) and "heartily" (Colossians 3:23). Psuche is the word from which "soul" is translated in Matthew 22:37.

The Greek word, gnome, means one's judgment or opinion ("mind" Philemon 14; Revelation 17:13; "purposed" Acts 20:3; "judgment" 1 Corinthians 1:10; 7:25, 40; "advice" 2 Corinthians 8:10; "will" and "to agree" Revelation 17:17). The Greek word, homophron, means harmonious ("mind" 1 Peter 3:8). The Greek word, ennoia, means thoughtfulness ("mind" 1 Peter 4:1; "intents" Hebrews 4:12). The Greek word, prothumos, means willingly ("mind" 1 Peter 5:2). Another Greek word for "mind" is anamimnesko, which means to remind ("called to mind" Mark 14:72; "remembrance" Mark 11:21; 1 Corinthians 4:17; 2 Corinthians 7:15; 2 Timothy 1:6; Hebrews 10:32). The Greek word, phroneo, means to exercise the mind and is used 31 times in the New Testament ("mind" Romans 8:5; 12:16; 2 Corinthians 13:11; Philippians 2:2, 5; 3:15-16, 19; 4:2; "savourest," "thinkest," "highminded," "to think," "regard," "regardeth," "likeminded," "understood," "care," "careful" and "affection").

In contrast to the word "mind," the word "heart" is translated from far fewer Greek words into our English New Testaments. However, there are still several Greek words from which we derive our English word "heart." Likewise, these words possess different meanings, too.

The Greek word, kardia, literally refers to the pumper of blood in our chests, and figuratively it means one's thoughts or emotions. Kardia is the Greek word for "heart" in Matthew 22:37. Kardia appears 161 times in the Greek New Testament, translated "heart" in each instance. The Greek word, sklerokardia, means hard heartedness ("hardness of heart" Matthew 19:8; Mark 10:5; 16:14). The English word "heart" in Ephesians 6:6 is translated from the Greek word, psuche.

From the foregoing, it ought to be apparent that it would be an oversimplification to affirm that "mind" and "heart" do refer to the same thing. Likewise, it would be an oversimplification to affirm that "mind" and "heart" do not refer to the same thing. Both the original language words as well as the contexts in which they appear often determine the definition of words. Therefore, sometimes "mind" and "heart" have the same or similar meaning and sometimes they do not.

HEART, HEARTILY kardia, "the heart" (Eng., "cardiac," etc.), the chief organ of physical life ("for the life of the flesh is in the blood," Lev 17:11), occupies the most important place in the human system. By an easy transition the word came to stand for man's entire mental and moral activity, both the rational and the emotional elements. (Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words, Copyright (c)1985, Thomas Nelson Publishers)

Vine's also has an extensive categorization of the different ways in which kardia is used in the New Testament (with Bible citations) to essentially convey references to the willpower, emotions and intellect, depending upon the various contexts in which kardia is employed.

typewriter Committing Adultery

By Louis Rushmore

Dear Louis, I have read, with interest, an article by Wayne Jackson in the December 2001 issue of Gospel Gazette. In the second paragraph under the heading, Matthew 19:8-9 he has; "And I say unto you, Whosoever shall put away his wife, except for fornication, and shall marry another, is committing adultery." I have searched every version in my computer and did not find a version that reads 'is committing adultery.' If there is such a version would you please enlighten me?  Is it OK to change the reading to what we would like for the Bible to say?  Is this any less dishonest than the Baptist when they insert 'only' after faith in Eph. 2:8?  Is the cause of 'TRUTH' served by misrepresentation of what the Bible says? I think not! Too much has been said and written by uninformed brethren on this and many other subjects to try to impose their conclusions on others! I hope you will be more careful as to the content of articles appearing on your website. Sincerely, Ralph M. Roe

"Committeth adultery" (KJV, ASV) or "commits adultery" (NKJV, NASV, RSV, NIV) in Matthew 19:9 is translated from the Greek, moichatai, which is the present tense verb for "adultery."

The present tense is the main tense for present action, and since it overlaps with the speaker's comment on it, it will normally refer to a continuing present action or state. It may be translated as a Simple Present ("I loose") or as a Present Progressive ("I am loosing") depending on what fits the context and the word used. (Chapman, Benjamin and Shogren, Gary Steven, Greek New Testament Insert, (Quakertown, PA: Stylus Publishing) 1994.) [emphasis added, ler.]

Hence, irrespective of what one wishes the Bible to say, or rather what one wishes it did not say, Matthew 19:9 teaches "...Whosoever shall put away his wife, except for fornication, and shall marry another, is committing adultery." That is precisely what the present tense words "committeth adultery" or "commits adultery" properly indicate, as does the Greek word, too.

Therefore, representing Matthew 19:9 to read "is committing adultery" is not dishonest, but rather it is biblically accurate as well as clearly understood. Further, representing Matthew 19:9 to read "is committing adultery" does not involve adding any words that are not represented by the Greek word moichatai. Instead of a misrepresentation, the phrase "committing adultery" in Matthew 19:9 faithfully represents the truth contained in that verse.

Ironic, isn't it, that one who is obviously "uninformed" regarding fundamentals respecting the Greek language, which underlies the New Testament, would hasten to label as "uninformed" a learned student of God's Word for many decades, and castigate his scholarly treatise on a timely biblical subject, which is of critical importance to the happiness and spiritual well being especially of western society, which is beset with marriage-divorce-and-remarriage. As Editor of Gospel Gazette Online, I select every article carefully and purposely for inclusion in the pages of GGO. I only wish that every article that I write and each article of other writers included within GGO were always of the same high caliber with the same faithful reliance on God's holy Word as the article by Wayne Jackson with which one has taken exception.

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