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 Vol. 9, No. 2 

February 2007

Editorial

~ Page 2 ~

Image Proof That God Exists!

By Louis Rushmore

The Psalmist stated that only a fool would conclude the God does not exist (Psalm 14:1). The apostle Paul wrote that the created universe provides sufficient testimony to the existence of God (Romans 1:19-20). Of course, with the acknowledgement of God comes also divine revelation with its instructions for which mankind is accountable to God. It is no wonder, then, that mankind is anxious to conclude that there is no God. However, the evidence in the physical world, properly and honestly handled, testifies of the existence of God. We briefly consider herein these evidences that God exists: the existence of the universe, the existence of morals and the existence of design in the universe.

The existence of the universe proves that God exists.

Reasoning that God exists from consideration of the existence of the universe is called the Cosmological Argument. One dictionary definition of "cosmology" is "a theory or doctrine describing the natural order of the universe" (Merriam). Another definition of "cosmology" "is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanity's place in it" ("Cosmology").

Respecting the existence of the universe, "there are only three options [as to its origin]: (1) it is eternal; (2) it created itself from nothing; or (3) it was created" (Harrub 15). The universe is expanding similar to the ripples in water moving away from the entry point of a pebble tossed into a puddle. This indicates that the universe had a beginning. Therefore, the universe is not eternal! Evolutionary scientists also readily admit that the universe is not eternal. Like a little boy who tossed a pebble into a puddle, which caused water to ripple outward, the expanding universe requires some fundamentally necessary cause to explain the universe expanding outward from some center.

Similarly, the Second Law of Thermodynamics is a universally recognized scientific fact that implies that everything had a beginning. The Second Law of Thermodynamics includes the breakdown and increasing chaos of everything that exists.

The 2nd Law of Thermodynamics describes basic principles familiar in everyday life. It is partially a universal law of decay; the ultimate cause of why everything ultimately falls apart and disintegrates over time. Material things are not eternal. ...Everything ages and wears out. Even death is a manifestation of this law. The effects of the 2nd Law are all around, touching everything in the universe. ...It is well known that, left to themselves, chemical compounds ultimately break apart into simpler materials; they do not ultimately become more complex. ...The natural tendency of complex, ordered arrangements and systems is to become simpler and more disorderly with time. Thus, in the long term, there is an overall downward trend throughout the universe. (Taylor emphasis added)

However, evolutionary theory requires exactly the opposite of observable, scientific fact.

To put it simply: In the real world, the long-term overall flow is downhill, not uphill. All experimental and physical observation appears to confirm that the Law is indeed universal, affecting all natural processes in the long run. Naturalistic Evolutionism requires that physical laws and atoms organize themselves into increasingly complex and beneficial, ordered arrangements. Thus, over eons of time, billions of things are supposed to have developed upward, becoming more orderly and complex. However, this basic law of science (2nd Law of Thermodynamics) reveals the exact opposite. In the long run, complex, ordered arrangements actually tend to become simpler and more disorderly with time. There is an irreversible downward trend ultimately at work throughout the universe. Evolution, with its ever increasing order and complexity, appears impossible in the natural world. (Taylor emphasis added)

Consequently, some evolutionists, recognizing the significance of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, have abandoned the theory of evolution as absurd and unscientific. "A number of scientists believe the 2nd Law, when truly understood, is enough to refute the theory of Evolution. In fact, it is one of the most important reasons why various Evolutionists have dropped their theory in favor of Creationism" (Taylor).

The Second Law of Thermodynamics implies that everything, including the universe itself, had a beginning, which since then everything has been wearing out, which the Bible also affirms respecting creation. "Lift up your eyes to the heavens, and look upon the earth beneath: for the heavens shall vanish away like smoke, and the earth shall wax old like a garment, and they that dwell therein shall die in like manner: but my salvation shall be for ever, and my righteousness shall not be abolished" (Isaiah 51:6 emphasis added). "Of old hast thou laid the foundation of the earth: and the heavens are the work of thy hands. They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed" (Psalm 102:25-26 emphasis added).

Brother Edward Benesh aptly cites "the Second Law of Thermodynamics as the basal piece of evidence that the universe had a beginning." The universe, then, had a beginning, and it is not eternal.

Since the universe had a beginning, did it create itself? The Latin expression "Ex nihilo nihil fit" means "[f]rom nothing comes nothing-i.e. every effect must have a cause" ("Nihilo" emphasis added). With noted writer Charles Hodge we concur:

It is a self-evident truth that existence cannot spring spontaneously from non-existence. In this sense ex nihilo nihil fit is an universally admitted axiom. Those, therefore, who deny the existence of an extramundane mind, are forced to admit that as the universe now is, it must have always been. But as it is in a state of perpetual change it has not always been as it now is. (411)

Another notes: "The phrase ex nihilo nihil fit is true in the sense that there must be a cause of every finite substance. And nothing can come from nothing either (a) by finite [limited] power; (b) as material source; or (c) by emanation, generation and evolution" (Hall). The absurdity of trying at all costs to avoid the logical and inevitable conclusion of a first cause (which many utterly refuse could be God) is seen in the lengths to which one will go into irrationality. "One of the most inviolate and oldest laws of science is Ex nihilo nihil fit- 'Out of nothing, nothing comes.' When scientists ascribe absolute power to nothing, they are creating myths. Here, chance is the 'magic wand to make not only rabbits but entire universes appear out of nothing' (Ankerberg and Weldon).

Since obviously the universe did not create itself, that only leaves one possibility. The only reasonable explanation for the existence of the universe is that it was created or caused to exist. There simply must be a first cause, and nothing has the ability to cause itself (Benesh 68). The Bible ascribes that first cause to God (Genesis 1:1; Psalms 8:3; 33:6; 102:25; Proverbs 3:19).

Further, the same power or cause with which the universe came into existence is the same power or cause for its continued existence, without which the universe and all that is within it would perish. "Thou, even thou, art LORD alone; thou hast made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth, and all things that are therein, the seas, and all that is therein, and thou preservest them all; and the host of heaven worshippeth thee" (Nehemiah 9:6 emphasis added). Evolutionists have not only the problem of origins with which to deal, but also the dilemma of its continued existence, which has escaped their attention.

Evolutionist and atheists seem content to overlook the obvious facts respecting the existence of the universe, facts equally obvious for the existence of a house. "For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God" (Hebrews 3:4). In addition, the nothingness out of which the universe sprung, though it cannot be addressed scientifically or by evolution, is noted and ascribed to God in the Bible. "Through faith we understand that the worlds were framed by the word of God, so that things which are seen were not made of things which do appear" (Hebrews 11:3 emphasis added). While evolutionists do not have the answers to origins and do not even know all of the relevant questions, the Bible addresses all the significant questions respecting origins and attributes origins to the first (and sustaining) cause, God.

However, admittedly God must be eternal and himself, forever existent without a first cause.

One may ask, however, if everything in the universe has to have a cause, then what caused God? Many have asked this question and all of them have made the same mistake. The fallacy here is one of category. Events do not happen without a cause. However, God, who is neither an event nor an unnecessary (contingent) being, does not need a cause. God has no beginning and no end, as our universe and existence. (Benesh 82)

That the first cause is a personal being, God, becomes evident through appreciation of the existence of morals and intelligent design in the universe.

The existence of morals proves that God exists.

Reasoning that God exists from consideration of the existence of morals is called the Anthropological Argument. Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary defines "anthropology" as "the science of human beings; especially : the study of human beings in relation to distribution, origin, classification, and relationship of races, physical character, environmental and social relations, and culture" (emphasis added). Another definition reads: "The scientific study of the origin, the behavior, and the physical, social, and cultural development of humans" ("Anthropology" emphasis added).

The theory of evolution as an explanation for origins is incapable of producing human morality. With brother Harrub we concur:

It is impossible for matter--by itself--to evolve a system of moral "right" and "wrong." Yet, man recognizes right and wrong. The question arises from whence did moral originate? ...in order for something to be "right" or "wrong" demands that there is an absolute standard for morality. ...(1) either they [morals] were conjured up and created by man; or (2) they originated with God. (Harrub 15).

Evolutionary theory of the survival of the fittest is essentially "Might makes right," "What's yours is mine if I can take it" and "every man is a law unto himself." (That situation existed, producing utter chaos at a time in the history of Israel, Judges 17:6; 21:25). The only restraint under the system of survival of the fittest is self-preservation in not provoking someone tougher than oneself. Completely absent from survival of the fittest is compassion, sexual morality, etc.

The universality of morality among humans speaks to a single source of morality beyond any individual mortals. "The human race experiences a sense of morality that when compared is very similar no matter the location on the globe. This cannot be the result of self-invention; thus, the source for morality must be from outside of mankind" (Phillips 191). "The existence of a world-wide system of morals is excellent proof that God exists" (Harrub 15). Only a superhuman Being (God) could possibly mold a universal moral code and instill it within all of humanity. Many are they that bend morality or operate despite moral ethics, but the distribution of morality nevertheless is universal among humankind.

The vehicle or mechanism of moral judgment or a sense of morality is one's conscience. No purely material or evolutionary explanation can account for the capacity of conscience. From the conscience only proceeds the sense of "ought" or moral obligation. A conscience can be misinformed and thereby allow what it should not and prohibit what it need not, but the conscience is still there. A conscience may be ignored until it hardens and its voice is little heard, but the conscience is an innate part of humanity (1 Timothy 4:2). A person may not want a conscience or he may desire to refuse morality, but each human debuts, howbeit involuntarily, with a conscience of an unspoken moral code of ethics that surpasses his own devising. Admittedly, the code of moral ethics needs to be fine tuned through written revelation from God, the Bible.

Believing in evolution as an explanation of origins instead of biblical creation has resulted in gross immorality (Romans 1:20-32). "It seems pretty clear that an evolutionary explanation will not provide a foundation for morality. ...On the other hand, it seems that the evolutionary explanation may undermine commitment to morality" (Kilcullen).

Expunging God from American society has replaced morality with amorality, a void of awareness of any ethical code to which anyone is accountable. Removing God from the classroom, from our legislatures and from courtrooms amounts to a self-fulfilling prophecy of evolutionary thought, the survival of the fittest. We have exchanged God and his Bible in schools for guns and condoms, etc. We did not start out as monkeys as evolutionists claim, but evolutionists are turning mankind into a bunch of monkeys and beasts.

The existence of design in the
universe proves that God exists.

Reasoning that God exists from consideration of the existence of design in the universe is called the Teleological Argument. Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary defines "teleology" as "the study of evidences of design in nature." A definition for "Teleological Argument" is "an argument for the existence of God or a creator based on perceived evidence of order, purpose, design and/or direction in nature" ("Teleological"). "The argument for design simply stated notes where there is purposeful design, there must be a Designer" (Board 288).

Design in the starry universe proves that God exists. Our planet is a small speck in a universe so vast that it is incomprehensible.

We live in a tremendously large Universe. While its outer limits have not been measured, it is estimated to be as much as 20 billion light years in diameter. [A light-year is the distance that light travels in a vacuum in one year at a speed of slightly more than 186,000 miles per second. ...There are an estimated one billion galaxies in the Universe (Lawton, 1981), and an estimated 25 sextillion stars. The Milky Way galaxy in which we live contains over 100 billion stars, and is so large that even traveling at the speed of light would require 100,000 years to cross its diameter. (Thompson)

The position of the earth exactly where it is in relationship to our sun keeps it from being incinerated or frozen.

If the Earth were moved just 10% closer to the Sun (about 10 million miles), far too much radiation (and heat) would be absorbed. If the Earth were moved just 10% farther from the Sun, too little heat would be absorbed. Either scenario would spell doom for life on the Earth. ...The Earth is rotating on its axis at 1,000 miles per hour at the equator, and moving around the Sun at 70,000 miles per hour (approximately 19 miles per second), while the Sun and its solar system are moving through space at 600,000 miles per hour in an orbit so large it would take over 226 million years just to complete a single orbit. This rotation provides periods of light and darkness--a phenomenon necessary for sustaining life as we know it. If the Earth rotated much faster, fierce cyclones would stir over the Earth like a kitchen food-mixer. If the Earth turned significantly slower, the days and nights would be impossibly hot or cold. ...The Earth's orbit is not a perfect circle, however, but is elliptical. This means that sometimes the Earth is closer to the Sun than at other times. In January, the Earth is closest to the Sun; in July, it is farthest away. When it is closer, the Earth "speeds up" to avoid being pulled into the Sun; when it is farther away, it "slows down," so that it remains in a position in space that is "just right." ...Interestingly, as the Earth moves in its orbit around the Sun, it departs from a straight line by only one-ninth of an inch every eighteen miles. If it departed by one-eighth of an inch, we would come so close to the Sun that we would be incinerated; if it departed by one-tenth of an inch, we would find ourselves so far from the Sun that we would all freeze to death…The Earth is tilted on its axis at exactly 23.5 degrees. If it were not tilted, but sat straight up in its orbit around the Sun, there would be no seasons. (Thompson)

The position of the oceans and continents on the earth as well as their proportions to each other are just right to produce beneficial weather patterns on the planet.

The Earth's oceans are another good example of perfect design. Water covers about 72% of the Earth's surface, which is good because the oceans provide a reservoir of moisture that constantly is evaporating and condensing. Eventually, this causes rain to fall on the Earth. It is a well-known fact that water heats and cools at a much slower rate than a solid land mass, which explains why desert regions can be blistering hot in the daytime and freezing cold at night. Water, however, holds its temperature longer, and provides a sort of natural heating/air-conditioning system for the land areas of the Earth. The Earth's annual average temperature (56°F; 13.3°C) is closely maintained by the great reservoir of heat found within the waters of the oceans. Temperature extremes would be much more erratic than they are, were it not for the fact that approximately four-fifths of the Earth is covered with water. (Thompson)

A casual look at any world map shows that most of the landmass of planet earth is in the Northern Hemisphere. This naturally leaves most of the Southern Hemisphere covered by water. Water has a large heat capacity, whereas land does not. This means that water both absorbs and releases a lot of heat slowly. Landmasses, on the other hand, do just the opposite. Therefore, when the Southern Hemisphere is close to the sun, Most of the sun's intense heat is dissipated when it reflects off the water. Some of the heat that the water does absorb is circulated to the colder Northern Hemisphere by ocean currents. If water were not concentrated in the Southern Hemisphere, this heat dissipation and transfer system would not work. These two properties, working in conjunction with the earth's tilted axis, help to moderate global temperatures. The northern landmass area absorbs maximum solar energy when the earth is farthest from the sun, while the southern waters both store and reflect heat when the earth is closest. (Clayton and Jansma 26)

Design in the animal and plant world proves that God exists. Consider the immediately necessary and essential exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between animals and plants.

In addition, humans and animals inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. On the other hand, plants take in carbon dioxide and give off oxygen. We depend upon the world of botany for our oxygen supply, yet we often fail to realize that approximately 90% of our oxygen comes from microscopic plants in the seas (see Asimov, 1975, 2:116). If our oceans were appreciably smaller, we soon would be out of air to breathe. (Thompson)

Second, consider this unusual creature, the Bombardier Beetle.

The bombardier beetle has two glands in the abdomen that it uses to make and store two chemicals, hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide. ...When the beetle is about to be attacked by a frog, mouse or other insect, he quickly squirts some of the mixture into twin combustion tubes, which can be aimed in a 360-degree radius. These tubes secrete two special chemicals called enzymes that cause a change in the mixture. ...The chemical reaction that occurs leads up to the explosive finale. ...As this reaction occurs, heat is given off which brings the liquid to boiling at 212 degrees Fahrenheit and builds up a great deal of pressure. The combustion tube has valves at the outside that can be closed until the pressure rises sufficiently to expel the liquid a fair distance giving off an audible "pop" as it does so. It is this mixture that is expelled into the mouth and face of an attacker. ...The question must now be asked, "How did this beetle get such an extravagant mechanism of self-defense?" The evolutionist must believe in millions of small accidents and changes to get this mechanism. Yet, why would a beetle evolve any of this mechanism if it did not produce a beneficial result the first time it was used? The mixture is of no use without the enzymes. The enzymes are of no use without the mixture. The mixture and enzymes are of no use without the combustion tube. The combustion tube is of no use without the valves to control direction and build up pressure. This could go on and on, but what it really means is that there is no way that this defensive mechanism could come about unless it all happened at once. An impossibility for evolution, a simple matter for the Great Designer! "The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God" (Psalm 14:1). (Everson, "Bombardier")

Third, consider this unusual plant, the Venus Fly Trap.

The structure that it uses is a modified leaf. It is hinged at the middle to form a trap. The outside of the trap is lined with long pike-like extensions that form a nice barred cage long before the trap has completely closed. The inside of the trap is lined with very important trigger hairs. These hairs are the "eyes" of the trap. The cells lining the leaf have special digestive enzymes that can be secreted when a victim is caught. ...Now, for the bait, this complex mechanism is not just a bare trap that snaps randomly or when a luckless insect falls into it. It is baited with a chemical produced by the cells that smells for all the world like rotting meat. ...When the proper signal has been sent, the cells on the outside of the leaf begin growing at a very rapid rate. With growth on the outside, but not on the inside, the leaf, in effect, closes on itself, curling inward. The opposite would be true when the trap needs to open. The cells on the inside grow and push the trap open. …Once the leaf has trapped an insect, the plant will press both sides of the leaf tightly against its victim. The release of digestive enzymes then dissolves the prey. Once the insect is gone, the leaf then opens again to wait for another luckless victim. Indeed, this is a marvelous system that has been designed and should cause each of us to wonder at the miracles of the creation. The Venus Fly Trap is also an example of how hard it is to imagine a method of evolution by accidents happening over thousands and thousands of years. (Everson, And God Created)

Design in mankind proves that God exists. Consider the humble cell in the human body for its complexity and design, which before the arrival of modern instruments was simply considered a "black box" or comparable to a blob of Jell-O. "The term 'black box' was employed as a symbolic expression 'for a device that does something, but whose inner workings are mysterious'" (Jackson, "Science"). However, many of the secrets of the cell have been discovered, with those discoveries the end of the road respecting design or complexity in nature. "...because irreducible complexity occurs at the biochemical level, there is no more fundamental level of biological analysis to which the irreducible complexity of biochemical systems can be referred..." (Behe qtd. in Thompson and Harrub, "Molecular" emphasis added).

Simply, that means there are no more black boxes; we have arrived at irreducible complexity or design that proves an Intelligent Designer. "What we are looking for...is not just complex arrangement of parts, but irreducible complexity. We want to dig down deep enough until we find no more black boxes" (Major).

The key to the proof for an Intelligent Designer in irreducible complexity or design is that undeniably all of the parts that make the whole are unique (serve no other purpose) and necessary (existence is impossible without all of the unique parts working in perfect harmony). "By irreducibly complex, I mean a single system composed of several well-matched, interacting parts that contribute to the basic function, wherein the removal of any one of the parts causes the system to effectively cease functioning" (Behe qtd. in Thompson and Harrub, "Molecular").

When special kinds of scientists--people such as biochemists--open up the black boxes of molecular machines, blood coagulation, and the metabolic pathway...they fail to find still smaller black boxes. At some point they run into "irreducible complexity"--a single system which, if any part were removed or crippled, would cease to perform its obvious function. (Major emphasis added)

Consequently, true science proves the existence of an Intelligent Designer, who is God.

As modern science has acquired the ability to see deeper and deeper into the natural world, problems with the waning theory of evolution continue to plague its proponents. A multiplicity of natural, biological systems exhibit complexity that could not have arisen through natural, evolutionary processes. In response to these findings, the Intelligent Design movement has begun to gain major footholds in academic circles. In a nutshell, intelligent design suggests that many natural systems are too complex to have evolved. (Butt)

Conclusion

A number of independent but related lines of reasoning each conclude based on fair treatment of evidence that God exists. Collectively, independent lines of reasoning that conclude that God exists are a formidable testimony to the existence of God: The very existence of the universe proves the existence of God. "The existence of a world-wide system of morals is excellent proof that God exists" (Harrub 15). The existence of design in the universe proves that God exists.

Some of the most highly educated people on the planet, sometimes reluctantly, acknowledge that the universe bears unmistakable evidence of having been made by an Intelligent Designer.

Australian astrophysicist Paul Davies, in his book, The Cosmic Blueprint, opined: here is for me powerful evidence that there is something going on behind it all. ...It seems as though somebody has fine-tuned nature's numbers to make the Universe. ...The impression of design is overwhelming (1988, p. 203, emp. added). (qtd. in Thompson and Harrub, "Our Finely Tuned")

British cosmologist Sir Fred Hoyle wrote: A common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a superintellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question (1982, 20:16). (qtd. in Thompson and Harrub, "Our Finely Tuned")

Prominent cosmotologist Frank Tipler wrote:

When I began my career as a cosmologist some twenty years ago, I was a convinced atheist. I never in my wildest dreams imagined that one day I would be writing a book purporting to show that the central claims of Judeo-Christian theology are in fact true, that these claims are straightforward deductions of the laws of physics as we now understand them. I have been forced into these conclusions by the inexorable logic of my own special branch of physics (1994, preface). (qtd. in Thompson and Harrub, "Our Finely Tuned")

In 1995, NASA astronomer John O'Keefe stated in an interview: We are, by astronomical standards, a pampered, cosseted, cherished group of creatures. ...If the Universe had not been made with the most exacting precision we could never have come into existence. It is my view that these circumstances indicate the universe was created for man to live in (as quoted in Heeren, 1995, p. 200). (qtd. in Thompson and Harrub, "Our Finely Tuned")

British molecular biologist Michael Denton wrote in his 1998 book, Nature's Destiny:

Whether one accepts or rejects the design hypothesis...there is no avoiding the conclusion that the world looks as if it has been tailored for life; it appears to have been designed. All reality appears to be a vast, coherent, teleological whole with life and mankind as its purpose and goal (p. 387, emp. in orig.). (qtd. in Thompson and Harrub, "Our Finely Tuned")

Michael J. Murray summarized the reluctance of scientists to acknowledge an Intelligent Designer in the design or complexity they observe in the universe.

Almost everything about the basic structure of the universe--for example, the fundamental laws and parameters of physics and the initial distribution of matter and energy--is balanced on a razor's edge for life to occur. ...Scientists call this extraordinary balancing of the parameters of physics and the initial conditions of the universe the "fine-tuning of the cosmos" (1999, p. 48, emp. added).  (qtd. in Thompson and Harrub "Our Finely Tuned")

"The 'design' of nature seems so compelling. The more one learns about how things have been 'put together,' the more difficult it becomes to deny the logic of intelligent design" (Jackson "Skepticism"). It's only a small step with a lot of courage that hinders many of these outstanding thinkers to admit that the Intelligent Designer is God. The evidence for the existence of God in the created universe is overwhelming (Psalm 19:1; Romans 1:19-20).

The God who created the universe invites you and me to come home to live with him forever. Eternal habitation with Almighty God in his heavenly home is conditional (Acts 17:24-31; 2:38; 8:22).Image

Works Cited

Ankerberg, John and John Weldon. "The Evolution of Life, Probability Considerations and Common Sense, Part 7." Ankerberg Theological Research Institute. 19 Jan. 2007 <http://www.johnankerberg.org/Articles/_PDFArchives/science/SC1W0502.pdf>.

"Anthropology." The Free Dictionary. Farlex, Inc. 19 Jan. 2007 <http://www.thefreedictionary.com/anthropology>.

Benesh, Edward. "The Causal Argument Proves God Exists." Christian Evidences. Louis Rushmore, ed. Moundsville: West Virginia School of Preaching, 2005: 64-91.

Board, John F. "The Design Argument." Christian Evidences. Louis Rushmore, ed. Moundsville: West Virginia School of Preaching, 2005: 285-302.

Butt, Kyle. "Evolution, Intelligent Design and Testability." ApologeticsPress.org 20 Jan. 2007 <http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/2778>.

Clayton, John and Nils Jansma. The Source. West Monroe: Howard, 2001.

 "Cosmology." Wikipedia. 19 Jan. 2007 <http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Cosmology>.

Everson, David P. And God Created. Cameron: Rushmore, 2005.

- - -. "The Bombardier Beetle." Gospel Gazette Online May 2001. 20 Jan. 2007 <http://www.gospelgazette.com/gazette/2001/may/page5.htm>.

Hall, Francis J. "Cosmology." Theological Outlines. 9 Aug. 2005. disseminary.org. 19 Jan. 2007 <http://disseminary.org/hoopoe/ dogma/2005/08/q_2_doctrine_of.html>.

Harrub, Brad. Think. 2.1 (2007): 14-15.

Hodge, Charles. Systematic Theology, Vol. 1. (1878) CD-ROM. Grand Rapids: Christian Classics Ethereal Library, 2005.

Jackson, Wayne. "Science and Faith: The Budding Romance." 1 Jun. 1999 ChristianCourier.com. 20 Jan. 2007 <http://www. christiancourier.com/articles/read/science_and_faith_the_budding_romance>.

- - -. "Skepticism Abandons Logic." 18 Feb. 2002 ChristianCourier.com 20 Jan. 2007 <http://www.christiancourier.com/articles/read/skepticism_abandons_logic>.

Kilcullen, John. "Can Evolution Explain Morality?" 1996 Macquarie University. 19 Jan. 2007 <http://www.humanities.mq.edu.au/Ockham/y64l052.html>.

Major, Trevor. "The Design's in the Details." Oct. 1996 ApologeticsPress.org 20 Jan. 2007 <http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/2459>.

Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary. CD-ROM. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1993.

"Nihilo." infoplease. 19 Jan. 2007 <http://www.infoplease.com/ dictionary/brewers/nihilo.html>.

Phillips, Michael E. "The Moral Argument Proves God Exists." Christian Evidences. Louis Rushmore, ed. Moundsville: West Virginia School of Preaching, 2005: 189-194.

Taylor, Paul S. "Second Law of Thermodynamics: Does the Basic Law of Nature Prevent Evolution?" ChristianAnswers.Net 19 Jan. 2007 <http://www.christiananswers.net/q-eden/edn-thermodynamics.html>.

"Teleological Argument." Wikipedia. 19 Jan. 2007 <http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleological_argument>.

Thompson, Bert. "Design in Nature-The Teleological Argument." ApologeticsPress.org. 19 Jan. 2007 <http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/1969>.

Thompson, Bert and Brad Harrub. "Molecular Evidence of Human Origins, Part II." May 2005 ApologeticsPress.org 20 Jan. 2007 <http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/2734>.

- - -. "Our Finely Tuned Universe." Jun. 2003 ApolgeticsPress.org 19 Jan. 2007 <http://www.apologeticspress.org/articles/53>.

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