Vol. 3, No. 3
Frozen Mammoth discovered in Siberia! So stated newspaper headlines last October. The body of a wooly mammoth -- the entire carcass intact [it was thought at first] -- had been discovered in northern Siberia. The creature subsequently was retrieved from the ice and flown to Khatanga where scientists will do research on the remains. Geneticists will attempt to extract cells from the body and clone a new mammoth, using a female elephant as a surrogate mother.
The woolly mammoth was a huge beast that roamed the earth several thousand years ago. It is well known from numerous cave paintings. The creature stood some thirteen to fourteen feet high -- about the size of a full-grown African bull elephant.
One of the great mysteries of geologic history is why mammoths became extinct. Various theories have been proposed. Some scientists suggest that these massive animals were the first species to be exterminated by man (Boyd, 479). There really is no support for this view. No evidence has been discovered of ancient mammoth traps, nor have there been any traces of arrow or axe blows on the bones from the many discoveries of these creatures.
The most common view is that the mammoths did not survive a sudden and severe climatic change. Let us consider some of the known facts regarding the demise of these great beasts.
(1) The evidence for widespread mammoth deaths involves vast regions of the polar-area of the northern hemisphere. One news article states: "All over the frozen northern parts of Siberia and Canada we find the frozen carcasses of hundreds of thousands of large animal species. There are mainly mammoths, but also [there are] wooly rhinos and other creatures of this kind." In some areas, the tusks of the mammoths protruded (like tombstones) so profusely from the frozen tundra that it generated trade in fossil ivory for centuries, extending all the way to China.
(2) It is obvious that the mammoth herds died quite rapidly; they were, so to speak, quick-frozen. James D. Dana, who served as Professor of Natural History and Geology at Yale, in his renowned work, A Manual of Geology, wrote that "the encasing in ice of huge Elephants, and the perfect preservation of the flesh, shows that the cold finally became suddenly extreme, as of a single winter's night, and knew no relenting afterwards" (Price, 132 -- orig. emp.).
Sir Henry Howorth, a 19th century archaeologist, assembled a massive amount of material concerning the mammoth graveyards. Incidentally, Howorth was rather hostile toward Christianity. Anyway, he attributed the quick-freeze to a "change in climate" that "must have been sudden, and must also have been continental" (94).
The freeze occurred so rapidly that the bodies of these huge beasts did not have time to decompose. There have been numerous cases where the flesh of mammoths was so well preserved that the meat was still edible by bears and wolves.
In 1901, a mammoth carcass was found so well preserved that there were food fragments, as yet unswallowed, in its mouth. Moreover, there was more than twenty pounds of vegetation still in the stomach cavity -- some of which was not yet decayed. The animal had died and been frozen in virtually a matter of hours (Dillow, 319-20).
(3) Another amazing revelation amidst these discoveries is the fact that the stomach content of some of these creatures indicated they had been grazing on vegetation that grows only in warm regions, yet they were quite near the North Pole. Scientists were mystified.
At this point, we must take a brief excursion and discuss the concept of "uniformitarianism," as advanced by the advocates of Darwinian evolution. Uniformitarianism is the notion that the earth's features, as currently observed, are the result of gradual changes, over a very long period of time (supposedly, several billion years). Thus, the slow processes we see occurring now are a commentary on the forces of nature in the past. The favorite phrase in the evolutionary vocabulary is: "The present is a key to the past." The late George Simpson of Harvard, known by his peers as "Mr. Evolution," opined that without the uniformitarian concept "there could be no really scientific study of any kind of history" (742). The fact of the matter is, the data cited above represent a "mammoth" obstacle to uniformitarian (evolution) theory.
An alternate concept for explaining earth's features is called "catastrophism," i.e., the idea that the planet's surface has been subject to violent changes in the past -- and on a worldwide scale. The most significant of these would be the global Flood of Noah's day. Let us reflect upon several matters related to this theme.
First, it is well known that in the ancient past, the earth was characterized by a universally mild climate. There is evidence aplenty for this. For example, fossil remains of ivy, grapevines, oaks, walnuts and magnolias in Greenland -- within eleven degrees of the North Pole -- reveal a once summer-like climate in that region. Coral within fossil rocks, discovered near Point Barrow, Alaska, indicate that the waters there once were much warmer that at present; corals cannot live in water cooler than about 68 degrees.
It is also widely recognized that coal is the by-product of decayed vegetable matter. There are vast coal deposits in certain areas of the earth (e.g., Antarctica), which cannot now accommodate the lush vegetation necessary to produce billions of tons of coal. This clearly demonstrates that the climate in these regions must have been drastically different in the remote past.
Alfred R. Wallace, who proposed the theory of evolution about the same time that Darwin did, once wrote:
There is but one climate known to the ancient fossil world as revealed by the plants and animals entombed in the rocks, and the climate was a mantle of spring-like loveliness which seems to have prevailed continuously over the whole globe (I, 277).
A more recent apostle of evolution, Dr. Robert Jastrow, similarly has observed:
Throughout the long reign of the gigantic reptiles, the world had known a mild and constant climate; on every continent the eye met gentle landscapes of low relief, with shallow seas and vast areas of swampland and tropical forest. The elements of the world were in perfect balance…(69).
The crucial question is: What so altered the surface of the earth so as to create the radically different features observed today? An increasing number of scientists are confessing that the theory of "uniformitarianism" simply cannot account for this change. "Catastrophism" is becoming an intriguing topic of discussion again.
Note the following testimony: "Of late there has been a serious rejuvenation of catastrophism in geological thought" (Brown, 456). "The profound role of major storms throughout geological history is becoming increasingly recognized" (Nummendal, 23). "The hurricane, the flood, or the tsunami may do more in an hour or a day than the ordinary processes of nature have achieved in a thousand years" (Ager, 54).
The disappearance of the great mammoths can be explained more reasonably in terms of the Genesis Flood than by any of the many theories espoused by evolutionists. Let us pursue this momentarily.
Many scholars believe there is biblical evidence for the concept that, before the Flood, the earth was encompassed by a canopy of water vapor that diffused sunlight and created a "greenhouse" effect, which resulted in a uniformly warm climate. Too, it is probable that the land to water ratio was more evenly distributed in the antediluvian world. This also would facilitate more moderate temperatures. Joseph Dillow has made a strong defense of a pre-Flood vapor canopy in his book, The Waters Above.
When God triggered the Flood, the canopy vapor collapsed, providing much of the water that flooded the planet. This, along with other geologic phenomena (e.g., volcanic activity) resulted in climatic conditions being altered radically -- worldwide (cf. Oard, ii; Whitcomb & Morris, 292ff). Following the Flood, for the first time the biblical record mentions "cold and heat, winter and summer" (Genesis 8:22).
As weather conditions changed -- abruptly and drastically -- the mammoths were quick-frozen in a sudden winter of the Polar Regions. Remember, we mentioned earlier that some of the mammoths had warm-weather vegetation in their mouths and stomachs -- frozen before lunch was over!
This brings us to a discussion of the Glacial Period, more popularly called the "Ice Age." Was there an Ice Age?
Geologists maintain there were several glacial periods in the earlier history of our planet. Supposedly, these lasted for millions of years. Great sheets of ice blanketed a considerable area of North America and Europe. The cause of this circumstance is a matter of considerable confusion among evolutionary geologists. More than sixty theories have been advanced in an attempt to explain the Ice Age (Oard, i).
Though some religionists have denied the existence of any ice age at all, respectable creationist scholars have argued persuasively that there is ample, widespread evidence for a post-Flood glacial period. Bernard Northrup, who has studied the geologic evidence from coast to coast and abroad, has argued that an ice age followed the Flood and was itself quite catastrophic. He insists, however, that his historical period (which he believes is alluded to in the Book of Job) can be fitted into the "young earth" chronology of strict creationism (93-100).
Michael Oard, a meteorologist, contends that the evidence prohibits the theory that there were multiple ice ages. He argues for one -- a catastrophic icy era which came "as a consequence of the Genesis Flood" (iv). Thus, the Christian need not deny that there was an historical period during which ice was extensive on our planet; he must simply recognize that the evolutionary view of such is seriously disputed.
Ager, Derek V. (1981), The Nature of the Stratigraphical Record (New York: John Wiley & Sons).
Boyd, Robert & Silk, Joan (1997), How Humans Evolved (New York: Norton).
Brown, W. Bahngress, Geology 2 (1974).
Dillow, Joseph C. (1981), The Waters Above (Chicago: Moody Press).
Howorth, H.H. (1887), The Mammoth and the Flood (London: Sampson, et al.).
Jastrow, Robert (1977), Until The Sun Dies (New York: Warner Books).
Northrup, Bernard (1986), "There Really Was An Ice Age," Proceedings of the First International Conference on Creationism (Pittsburgh: Creation Science Fellowship).
Nummendal, Dag, Geotimes 27, No. 2 (1974).
Oard, Michael J. (1987), "The Ice Age And The Genesis Flood," Impact (June).
Price, G.M. (1913), The Fundamentals of Geology (Mountain View, CA: Pacific Press).
Simpson, George G., Pittendrigh, C.S., Tiffany, L.H. (1957), Life: An Introduction to Biology (New York: Harcourt, Brace, Co.).
Wallace, Alfred R. (1886), The Geological Distribution of Animals (New York: Harper Bros.), 2 Vols.
Whitcomb, John, Morris, Henry (1961), The Genesis Flood (Philadelphia: Presbyterian & Reformed).