Gospel Gazette, Bible Articles

Vol. 1, No. 5Page 20May 1999

Gospel Gazette, Bible Articles

   By Louis Rushmore


The Holy Spirit And
The Indwelling Of
The Holy Spirit

There is no confusion among brethren of which I am aware regarding who the Holy Spirit is.  Scripture clearly identifies the Holy Spirit as one of three Divine persons who comprise the Godhead.  Matthew 28:19 represents the three persons of the Godhead as Divine equals of the same unit or Godhead, by whose authority the “Great Commission” baptism is authorized and commanded.  “Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.”  In short, the Holy Spirit is no more rightly an “it” than the “Father” or the “Son,” and Scripture otherwise attributes personal qualities to the Holy Spirit.

The Spirit Attributed with Characteristics of A Person

The Spirit descends: Mat 3:16, "And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him:"  Joh 1:32-33, "And John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove, and it abode upon him. And I knew him not: but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost."

The Spirit leads: Mat 4:1, "Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil."  Rom 8:14, "For as many as are led by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God." Gal 5:18, "But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law."

The Spirit speaks: Mat 10:20, "For it is not ye that speak, but the Spirit of your Father which speaketh in you."  Joh 16:13, "Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, {that} shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come."  Act 1:16, "Men {and} brethren, this scripture must needs have been fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost by the mouth of David spake before concerning Judas, which was guide to them that took Jesus."  Act 8:29, "Then the Spirit said unto Philip, Go near, and join thyself to this chariot." Act 10:19, "While Peter thought on the vision, the Spirit said unto him, Behold, three men seek thee."  Act 13:2, "As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said, Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work whereunto I have called them."  Act 21:11, "And when he was come unto us, he took Paul's girdle, and bound his own hands and feet, and said, Thus saith the Holy Ghost, So shall the Jews at Jerusalem bind the man that owneth this girdle, and shall deliver {him} into the hands of the Gentiles."  Act 28:25, "And when they agreed not among themselves, they departed, after that Paul had spoken one word, Well spake the Holy Ghost by Esaias the prophet unto our fathers,"  1Ti 4:1, "Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils;"  Heb 3:7, "Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost saith, To day if ye will hear his voice, paradise of God." Rev 2:11, "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; He that overcometh shall not be hurt of the second death."  Rev 2:17, "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; To him that overcometh will I give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth {it}."  Rev 2:29, "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches."  Rev 3:6, "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches."  Rev 3:13, "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches."  Rev 3:22, "He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches."  Rev 14:13, "And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto me, Write, Blessed {are} the dead which die in the Lord from henceforth: Yea, saith the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and their works do follow them." Rev 22:17, "And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely."

The Spirit can be blasphemed: Mat 12:31, "Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy {against} the {Holy} Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men."

The Spirit has a name: Mat 28:19, "Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:"

The Spirit reveals things: Luk 2:26, "And it was revealed unto him by the Holy Ghost, that he should not see death, before he had seen the Lord's Christ."  1Co 2:10, "But God hath revealed {them} unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God."

The Spirit has taken shape (form): Luk 3:22, "And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased."  Act 2:3, "And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them."

The Spirit teaches: Luk 12:12, "For the Holy Ghost shall teach you in the same hour what ye ought to say."  Joh 14:26, "But the Comforter, {which is} the Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my name, he shall teach you all things, and bring all things to your remembrance, whatsoever I have said unto you."  1Co 2:13, "Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual."

The Spirit comforts: Joh 14:16, "And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter, that he may abide with you for ever;"  Act 9:31, "Then had the churches rest throughout all Judaea and Galilee and Samaria, and were edified; and walking in the fear of the Lord, and in the comfort of the Holy Ghost, were multiplied."

The Spirit dwells: Joh 14:17, "{Even} the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you."  Rom 8:9, "But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Now if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of his."  Rom 8:11, "But if the Spirit of him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, he that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by his Spirit that dwelleth in you."  1Co 3:16, "Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and {that} the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?"  1Co 6:19, "What? know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost {which is} in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own?"  2Ti 1:14, "That good thing which was committed unto thee keep by the Holy Ghost which dwelleth in us."

The Spirit testifies: Joh 15:26, "But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, {even} the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:"  Act 20:23, "Save that the Holy Ghost witnesseth in every city, saying that bonds and afflictions abide me."  Rom 8:16, "The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God:"  Heb 10:15, "{Whereof} the Holy Ghost also is a witness to us: for after that he had said before,"

The Spirit Guides: Joh 16:13, "Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, {that} shall he speak: and he will shew you things to come."

The Spirit gives utterance: Act 2:4, "And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance."

The Spirit can be lied to: Act 5:3, "But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back {part} of the price of the land?"

The Spirit can witness things: Act 5:32, "And we are his witnesses of these things; and {so is} also the Holy Ghost, whom God hath given to them that obey him."  1 Jo 5:6, "This is he that came by water and blood, {even} Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and blood. And it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth."

The Spirit can be resisted: Act 7:51, "Ye stiffnecked and uncircumcised in heart and ears, ye do always resist the Holy Ghost: as your fathers {did}, so {do} ye."

The Spirit sends: Act 13:4, "So they, being sent forth by the Holy Ghost, departed unto Seleucia; and from thence they sailed to Cyprus."

The Spirit reasons: Act 15:28, "For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things;"

The Spirit forbids: Act 16:6, "Now when they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia,"  Act 16:7, "After they were come to Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia: but the Spirit suffered them not."

The Spirit appoints: Act 20:28, "Take heed therefore unto yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost hath made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which he hath purchased with his own blood."

The Spirit intercedes: Rom 8:26, "Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered."

The Spirit searches: 1Co 2:10, "But God hath revealed {them} unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God."

The Spirit justifies: 1Co 6:11, "And such were some of you: but ye are washed, but ye are sanctified, but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God."

The Spirit gives gifts: 1Co 12:8-9, "For to one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom; to another the word of knowledge by the same Spirit; To another faith by the same Spirit; to another the gifts of healing by the same Spirit;"

The Spirit writes: 2Co 3:3, "{Forasmuch as ye are} manifestly declared to be the epistle of Christ ministered by us, written not with ink, but with the Spirit of the living God; not in tables of stone, but in fleshly tables of the heart."

The Spirit is sent: Gal 4:6, "And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father."

The Spirit can be grieved: Eph 4:30, "And grieve not the holy Spirit of God, whereby ye are sealed unto the day of redemption."

The Spirit can be fellowshipped: Phi 2:1, "If {there be} therefore any consolation in Christ, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any bowels and mercies,"

The Spirit sanctifies: 2Th 2:13, "But we are bound to give thanks alway to God for you, brethren beloved of the Lord, because God hath from the beginning chosen you to salvation through sanctification of the Spirit and belief of the truth:"

The Spirit signifies: Heb 9:8, "The Holy Ghost this signifying, that the way into the holiest of all was not yet made manifest, while as the first tabernacle was yet standing:"

The Spirit can be mistreated: Heb 10:29, "Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace"?

As a person, howbeit Divine, the Holy Spirit exerts an influence.  During miraculous times, that influence included direct, new revelation from the Father and miracles.  Since miracles have concluded, the influence of the Holy Spirit occurs through the message of the Father and the record of miracles which through the Holy Spirit are recorded upon the pages of inspiration (the Bible).  Anyone who alleges any direct influence or revelation from the Holy Spirit today repudiates (perhaps unintentionally) the biblical teaching that the miraculous age has long since ended when the purpose of miracles was fulfilled (Mark 16:17-20; 1 Corinthians 13:8-13; Ephesians 4:11-14; Hebrews 2:3-4; John 20:30-31).

It is freely admitted that the Holy Spirit indwells the child of God.  How the Holy Spirit indwells the Christian is a matter of dispute (to which you refer).  Basically, two propositions prevail among members of the churches of Christ regarding the manner of this indwelling.  Some believe that the Holy Spirit dwells within the child of God in some personal, literal or bodily fashion.  Other brethren equally sincere conclude that the Holy Spirit indwells Christians representatively or through the medium of the Word of God.  Brethren Guy N. Woods and Gus Nichols, both highly esteemed for their biblical knowledge, publicly disagreed regarding the manner of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.  They did so, however, cordially and without a rupture of Christian fellowship.  They both acknowledged that the role of the Holy Spirit today does not include any direct communication with the child of God.  Therefore, their disagreement regarding how the Holy Spirit indwells the child of God was largely academic and of little practical consequence.

However, since their deaths, proponents of either of those two propositions have engaged one another in vigorous debate.  The fellowship before enjoyed despite the differing views respecting the manner of indwelling of the Spirit has suffered a serious blow.  Yet, if it is the case that some now espouse that the Holy Spirit today does something for the child of God directly (not through the medium of the Word of God), hence miraculous, that development cannot be ignored.

Many books have been written over the years that delineate the two primary propositions regarding the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.  Some of them are: The Word Of The Holy Spirit In Redemption by Franklin Camp; The Holy Spirit by V.E. Howard; Indwelling Of Holy Spirit (tract) by V.E. Howard; Questions Answered by Lipscomb and Sewell; The Gospel Plan Of Salvation by T.W. Brents; The Holy Spirit by Elmer L’Roy; A Commentary On Acts Of Apostles by J.W. McGarvey; The Holy Spirit by Max R. Miller; Exposition And Defense Of The Scheme Of Redemption As It Is Revealed And Taught In The Holy Scriptures by Robert Milligan; Gus Nichols’ Sermon Outlines by Gus Nichols; The Indwelling Of The Holy Spirit (article in the bulletin of the Heber Springs church of Christ, Heber Springs, AR, church of Christ, Vol. 3, No. 7, February 20, 1986) by Walter W. Pigg, Jr.; The Spirit And The Word by Z.T. Sweeney; The Mission And Medium Of The Holy Spirit by Foy E. Wallace, Jr.; Questions And Answers by Guy N. Woods; How The Holy Spirit Dwells In The Christian (tract) by Guy N. Woods; The Witness Of The Spirit by James W. Zachary.  Further, many articles appearing in Gospel magazines have been written in the past and numerous more are being written presently as the question of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit rises to the forefront of discussion again.

I have firm convictions regarding the manner of the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in the child of God, and yet I realize that other faithful brethren have equally firm convictions that do not concur with my understanding of the subject.  As long as brethren acknowledge that the role of the Holy Spirit today does not include direct communication with or influence upon the child of God, I am content to sustain the Christian fellowship that proponents of either proposition enjoyed during the lives of brethren Nichols and Woods.

In closing, regarding the inquiry about the work of the Holy Spirit today, there are at least two activities in which he participates now.  The Holy Spirit is a participant in baptism today on the Divine and spiritual side of that event:  “For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit” (1 Corinthians 12:13).  The Holy Spirit also makes intercession for faithful Christians:  “Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered.  And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God” (Romans 8:26-27).  In both instances, the Holy Spirit does something for the child of God--not to the child of God.

(Incidentally, I wrote a reproducible Bible class book for adults entitled, The Spirit Summarized.  In it I document the two positions regarding the indwelling of the Holy Spirit and otherwise address the subject of the Holy Spirit.  The book contains extensive citations from published brotherhood books.)



 

Unpardonable Sin

“What is the sin that cannot be pardoned?  What is blaspheme?”  ~ Glen Gannon
Your inquiry doubtless refers to the following passages.
“Then was brought unto him one possessed with a devil, blind, and dumb: and he healed him, insomuch that the blind and dumb both spake and saw. And all the people were amazed, and said, Is not this the son of David? But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, This fellow doth not cast out devils, but by Beelzebub the prince of the devils. And Jesus knew their thoughts, and said unto them, Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation; and every city or house divided against itself shall not stand: And if Satan cast out Satan, he is divided against himself; how shall then his kingdom stand? And if I by Beelzebub cast out devils, by whom do your children cast them out? therefore they shall be your judges. But if I cast out devils by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom is come upon you. Or else how can one enter into a strong man’s house, and spoil his goods, except he first bind the strong man? and then he will spoil his house. He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathereth not with me scattereth abroad. Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men. And whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come. Either make the tree good, and his fruit good; or else make the tree corrupt, and his fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by his fruit. O generation of vipers, how can ye, being evil, speak good things? for out of the abundance of the heart the mouth speaketh. A good man out of the good treasure of the heart bringeth forth good things: and an evil man out of the evil treasure bringeth forth evil things. But I say unto you, That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment. For by thy words thou shalt be justified, and by thy words thou shalt be condemned” (Matthew 12:22-37; cf. Mark 3:22-30; Luke 11:14-26; 12:10).

“. . . Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered.  Blessed is the man to whom the Lord will not impute sin” (Romans 4:6, 7).

“Therefore leaving the principles of the doctrine of Christ, let us go on unto perfection; not laying again the foundation of repentance from dead works, and of faith toward God, Of the doctrine of baptisms, and of laying on of hands, and of resurrection of the dead, and of eternal judgment. And this will we do, if God permit. For it is impossible for those who were once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and were made partakers of the Holy Ghost, And have tasted the good word of God, and the powers of the world to come, If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance; seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God afresh, and put him to an open shame” (Hebrews 6:1-6).

“For if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins, But a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation, which shall devour the adversaries. He that despised Moses’ law died without mercy under two or three witnesses: Of how much sorer punishment, suppose ye, shall he be thought worthy, who hath trodden under foot the Son of God, and hath counted the blood of the covenant, wherewith he was sanctified, an unholy thing, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of grace? For we know him that hath said, Vengeance belongeth unto me, I will recompense, saith the Lord.  And again, The Lord shall judge his people. It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of the living God” (Hebrews 10:26-31).

“Is any sick among you? let him call for the elders of the church; and let them pray over him, anointing him with oil in the name of the Lord: And the prayer of faith shall save the sick, and the Lord shall raise him up; and if he have committed sins, they shall be forgiven him. Confess your faults one to another, and pray one for another, that ye may be healed. The effectual fervent prayer of a righteous man availeth much. Elias was a man subject to like passions as we are, and he prayed earnestly that it might not rain: and it rained not on the earth by the space of three years and six months. And he prayed again, and the heaven gave rain, and the earth brought forth her fruit. Brethren, if any of you do err from the truth, and one convert him; Let him know, that he which converted the sinner from the error of his way, shall save a soul from death, and shall hide a multitude of sins” (James 5:14-20).

“If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall ask, and he shall give him life for them that sin not unto death. There is a sin unto death: I do not say that he shall pray for it.  All unrighteousness is sin: and there is a sin not unto death” (1 John 5:16-17).


The three persons of the Godhead share equally the essence of being deity, differing merely in their respective roles.  There is, therefore, no degree of quantity or quality regarding any person of the Godhead whereby sin (including blasphemy) itself against any one person of the Godhead could be deemed more serious.  Hence, the nature of unpardonable sin and blasphemy against the Holy Spirit must relate to other factors.

Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit was attributing the miraculous manifestation of the Holy Spirit, of which the blasphemers were eye-witnesses, to Satan.  Miracles wrought by the Holy Spirit, whether by Jesus Christ, his apostles, Cornelius (and his friends and household in Acts 10 & 11) or those upon whom the apostles laid their hands, were ample proof to all beholders that God was with them and their words (Mark 16:20; John 20:30-31; Hebrews 2:3-4).  To attribute the miraculous work of the Holy Spirit to Satan, whether manifested through Christ, the apostles or others, was a denial of undeniable evidence.

Why, then, can blasphemy against the Son of God (Jesus) be forgiven while blasphemy against the Holy Spirit cannot be forgiven?  Of the resources with which the Godhead could convince men of the scheme for their eternal redemption, Jesus Christ (in person, on earth) was central to that redemption and spokesman for the Godhead.  However, the Holy Spirit represented the Godhead’s final visitor to earthly habitations to call men to redemption.  Rejecting the Holy Spirit, therefore, meant rejecting every Divine effort (including Jesus Christ) and the Godhead’s last attempt to save fallen men.  As long as one continues to oppose the Holy Spirit (by attributing his miracles to the devil), and thereby also opposing God himself, his Word and Jesus Christ, there is no hope of salvation for him.

The unpardonable aspect of blaspheming or sinning against the Holy Spirit is the impenitent nature of the sin.  God cannot forgive sin for which men will not to repent.  Unpardonable sins or sins unto death for which no one may successfully pray (1 John 5:16-18) are sins for which sinners have not repented.  God cannot forgive sin for which men will not repent.  God does not impute sin to those who have covered their sins (Romans 4:6-7) in the divinely prescribed manner (submission to the Author of eternal salvation, Hebrews 5:8-9).  The James 5:14-20 context addresses prayer for sinners in the same breath in which it commends redeeming fallen brethren from their sins.  No one can be saved in spite of willful sin; repentance must be forthcoming.

The Hebrews epistle was penned to spiritually strengthen Jewish Christians who were in danger of apostasy.  The Hebrews 6 statement, “. . . it is impossible . . . If they shall fall away, to renew them again unto repentance . . .,” and the similar record in Hebrews 10, “. . . if we sin wilfully after that we have received the knowledge of the truth, there remaineth no more sacrifice for sins, But a certain fearful looking for of judgment and fiery indignation . . .,” refer to the same effect of blaspheming or sinning against the Holy Spirit and the unpardonable sin or sin unto death.  The common factor, again, is the unwillingness of the sinner to repent.  God cannot forgive sin for which one is unwilling to repent.  Impenitent souls are hopelessly lost as long as they will to resist redemption.

In blaspheming against the Holy Spirit, unpardonable sins and the feared Jewish apostasy, God has not decreed that certain souls cannot repent and be saved.  Souls involved in sin simply cannot be saved in their persistent failure to repent.  Two factors are especially emphasized in the passages relative to these lamentable conditions: (1) There is no additional source to which one can appeal beyond the final redemptive effort of the Holy Spirit.  In the case of the Jewish Christians it is said there is no sacrifice for sins beyond Christ through whom they could be saved, were they to reject the Son of God.  (2) One can so reject God’s redemptive plan to be self-blinded from the truth, a condition from which it may be impossible to recover.

“Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils; Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron . . .” (1 Timothy 4:1-2, emphasis added).
As in the days of Christ and the apostles, the only unpardonable sins are those for which one refuses to repent.  There is, though, imminent danger in rejecting the Godhead’s call to redemption.  One may not live long enough to have a future opportunity to comply with God’s plan of salvation (James 4:13-14) or repeated repudiation of God’s plan for the eternal habitation of one’s soul may harden the heart (sear the conscience) so that it is impossible to respond to the Divine invitation.

Under what circumstances does God forgive sin?  Under what circumstances does God refuse to forgive sin?  God, of course, forgives those who repent of their sins.  The children of God are expected to imitate God in this respect.  “Then came Peter to him, and said, Lord, how oft shall my brother sin against me, and I forgive him? till seven times?  Jesus saith unto him, I say not unto thee, Until seven times: but, Until seventy times seven” (Matthew 18:21-22).  Neither God nor we can, in the strictest sense, forgive sins for which one has not repented.  “Take heed to yourselves: If thy brother trespass against thee, rebuke him; and if he repent, forgive him” (Luke 17:3).  Like God, we must always be willing to forgive sins for which one repents.  Further, each of us needs to be ever ready to repent of his own sins.


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Gospel Gazette Online
Louis Rushmore, Editor
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